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Triploidy – Causes,Symptoms,Diagnosis and Treatment

by Ana
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Triploidy is a Chromosomal disorder that is considered as a nightmare for the parents who are expecting.

What is Triploidy Syndrome?

It is an uncommon disorder in which a baby is born with the 69 Chromosome instead of 46.  The people are mostly born with the sets of 23 Chromosome or total 46 Chromosomes.

The people with the Triploidy birth have an extra set of Chromosome in their body. Greater amount of Chromosome can give raise to many defects and it can result in the developmental problems.

Polyploid

Photo by : wikipedia

In some cases, this condition can also lead to the death.

Names of Triploidy

Triploidy is also known as

  • Triploidy Symdrome
  • Triploid Mixoploidy
  • 3n Syndrome
  • 3n Mixoploidy
  • Chromosome Trioloidy Syndrome

Causes of Triploidy

The studies have not found any causes for this disease. It is difficult to say why Triploidy occurs in the Infants who seems to be of healthy people.

This disease is not caused due to any physical defect in the parents. The old age is referred as the cause of this disease.

The Medical research has rejected the fact that the disease has no link with the old age parents.

Triploidy has no link with the Gender, age or other physical factors.

The Genetic factors do not have any link with this disease. The family members and relations of Triploidy couples give birth to the normal babies.

Triploidy Syndrome Symptoms

The babies with the Triploidy conditions are born in the following abnormal ways

  1. Diandry

    In this situation, a Sperm with 2 sets of the Chromosome fertilizes the Egg.

    1. Dispermy

      In this condition, the Egg is fertilized with the 2 Sperms; it is a kind of the Diandry.
      T
      he Fetus has a single set of the maternal Chromosomes and 2 sets of the Paternal Chromosomes.

  2. Digyny

    The Egg Farming-Cells fail to separate which results in the 2 sets of the Chromosome in the fertilized Egg.

    The baby has the single set of the Father’s Chromosomes and 2 sets of the Mother’s Chromosomes.

    In Diandric Pregnancies, the mothers have bigger Placenta. The Infants are usually healthy but the mothers who are expecting have the risk of suffering from miscarriage in the 3rd Trimester of Pregnancy.

    Mothers in Digynic Pregnancies have the smaller Placenta. The physical development of Triploidy baby is suffered due to this. The mother has the chance to suffer from the miscarriage in the second trimester.

Causes of Triploidy Extra Chromosome

  1. Division of Paternal and Maternal Cells

    In Tripploidy, the 69 Chromosome are formed in different ways. The extra set of the Chromosomes from the father occurs due to the Cell division in the process of Meiosis 1 or 2. The additional Chromosomes set from Mother develop due to the failure of the Cell division in Oocyte in Meiosis 1 or 2.

    The double Fertilization of the Ovum with the double Sperms can also cause the Triploidy.

  2. Miscarriage

    Miscarriage is common in the case of Triploidy. The babies affected with this disease die during miscarriage. The miscarriages occur during the second or the third semester of the Pregnancy.

  3. Birth

    The couples can expect a normal delivery, when giving birth to the Triploidy baby. Such babies may suffer from breathing difficulties and need the Oxygen support to survive. Some babies can breathe well and they do not need any support.

  4. Survival

    The Triploidy infants have many birth defects and they survive for only 4-5 months. Some infants live on.

    The babies who survive may suffer from the Mosaic Triploidy Syndrome. The babies with such condition have 46 Chromosome and extra set of Chromosomes in few Cells.

  5. Frequency

    This disorder occurs in 2,500 live births and 2% conceptions. Most of these infants are lost through the miscarriages. Triploidy during pregnancy records 20% of the total abortions done due to the defects in the Chromosomes.

Is Triploidy Dangerous?

This disorder is dangerous for the infants. it can lead to miscarriages in the second or third semester . It can also result in the cases of abortion.

The Mosaic Triploidy babies can survive longer but they are found to suffer from the mental disabilities.

Diagnosis of Triploidy

Triploidy is diagnosed with the help of Ultrasound, Blood tests and Amniocentesis.

  1. Ultrasound of Triploidy

    The Ultrasound helps to find the physical measurements of the infant. The abnormal growth is usually 1 of the Triploidy symptoms.

  2. Blood Tests

    The Blood tests are taken to find the PAPP-A levels and hCG levels in the Diandric pregnancies. The level of PAPP-A and HCG are low. The level of the AFP can vary from low to normal.

  3. Amniocentesis

    In this test a hollow needle is passed in the body of the expecting mother and a sample of the Amniotic Fluid present around the infant is taken. This fluid contains Cells of the Fetus. This test shows the number of the Chromosomes in the Cell. Any abnormality in the Chromosomes can detect the Triploidy.

Recurrence Risk

The risk of having Triploidy Pregnancy is very uncommon. Sometimes the women with 1 Triploidy miscarriage suffer another. Repeated Triploidy pregnancies can occur by chance.

Triploidy Treatment

This medical Syndrome has no specific treatment but this condition cannot be prevented. The Triploidy treatment is possible by terminating the Pregnancy. A woman can try another Pregnancy after Triploidy loss once her Blood and the Urine tests get normal.

Triploidy Blood Pressure

The women with the Triploidy Pregnancy suffer from increase in Blood Pressure. There can also be Headaches, Blurred Vision, Dizziness and other conditions. These symptoms can affect the health of the mother.

Triploidy and Cancer

The Triploidy can lead to Cancer in the mother. It should be properly checked that no unusual molar tissue is left in women during molar pregnancy. The remaining of the Molar tissues can cause Choriocarcinoma, a type of a cancer.

This cancer is curable. The early treatment of this disease makes the patient faster to recover from this disease.
Triploidy is rare disease. It can affect the 1-3% of pregnancies. the causes of Triploidy are still not known exactly.

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