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Prostate Cancer – Causes, Symptoms and Prevention

by Ana

Prostate Cancer is increasing day by day. Many people are suffering from this disease and deciding about the treatment of Prostate Cancer can be difficult because the options available today are better than they were 10 years ago and they are also not very reliable data is available to make the decisions for the treatment. The researchers are still making discoveries to compare the benefits and risks for various treatments for this Cancer.


Source by : wikimedia

What is Prostate Gland?

The Prostate Gland is an organ that is located at the opening of Urinary Bladder. This gland surrounds the initial part of Urethra. Urethra is a path through which Urine is drained out from Bladder that goes out from Penis.

Function of Prostate Gland

The main function of Prostate Gland is to produce some elements that are found in Semen like Minerals and Sugar.
Semen is a fluid that carries the Sperm to help in the reproduction process. The size of Prostate Gland is the just like the size of Walnut.

Prostate with seminal vesicles and seminal ducts, viewed from in front and above.

Source by : wikimedia

The Prostate Gland grows with the age. This hormone-related enlargement with aging is known as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. This condition is not linked to the Prostate Cancer.

BPH and Prostate Cancer both can cause same problems in older people. Enlarged Prostate Gland can press on the opening of the Bladder causing difficult in Urination.

What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate Cancer is a Tumor that composed of Cells from Prostate Gland. This tumor normally grows slowly and remains limited to the Glands for many years. The Tumor produces less or no symptoms during this time. All the Prostate Cancer is not similar. Some types of Prostate Cancer grow quickly and spread that can cause shortening of life in people affected by this disease.

Measure of Prostate Cancer fierceness is calculated by an expert Pathologist, observing the Prostate biopsy Specimen under Microscope.

As the Cancer progresses, it may spread beyond the Prostate into the nearby tissues. This Cancer can also metastasize to the other areas of body like bones, Lungs and Liver etc.

Importance of Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer is a common Tumor in American people and the 2nd leading cause of deaths after Lung Cancer.

The estimated Lifetime risk of being diagnosed with this disease is 17.6% for Caucasians and 20.6% for African Americans. The risk of death from Prostate Cancer is 2.8% and 4.7% respectively. This shows that Prostate Cancer can affect the lives of a number of people that are alive today.

The death rate from this disease has reduced and at present, 2 Million people in U.S are still alive who were being diagnosed with this disease, in past at some point in their lives.

Causes of Prostate Cancer

  • The risk factors for Prostate Cancer may involve age, genetics, hormonal changes, environmental factors like Toxins, Chemicals and industrial items. The chances of Prostate Cancer increases with the increase in age, it mostly occurs after the age of 40 years. : Some researchers say that among men over 80 years of age, 50-80% of them are affected due to Prostate Cancer and they are mostly diagnosed after the age of 65 years.
  • Genetics play an important role in the risk of developing Prostate Cancer. The risk of Prostate Cancer is 2 to 3 times more in people having family history of this disease.
  • Testosterone, the male hormone is produced by the Testicles, affects the growth of normal Prostate tissue and the Prostate Cancer cells. This hormone can aid in the development and growth of Prostate Cancer. The decrease in the level of Testosterone can reduce the growth of Prostate Cancer.
  • The Sexually transmitted infections are also risk factors for developing Prostate Cancer. People with sexually transmitted infections have 1.5 times more chance of developing this disease as compare to the healthy people.
  • Environmental factors like Cigarette and diets are rich in saturated fat so, they appear to increase the risk of Prostate Cancer.
  • The Toxins in the environment may promote the development of Prostate Cancer.
  • Geographical factors may also play an important role in the development of Prostate Cancer with men living in North American countries are at higher risk for this disease as compare to the men living in other areas.
  • There is no relationship is found between frequency of sexual activity and the chances of developing Prostate Cancer.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

In early stages, prostate Cancer does not show any symptom for many years.

Following are the symptoms of Prostate Cancer

  • Enlarge Urethra
  • Irregular flow of Urine
  • Difficulty in Urination
  • Burning in Urination
  • Blood in Urine
  • Blockage of Urine
  • Pain while Urination
  • Fatigue
  • Malaise
  • Weight Loss
  • Back pain
  • Pelvic pain
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Jaundice
  • Yellow color of Skin
  • Chest pain
  • Coughing

Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer I diagnosed with the help of Biopsy of Prostate Gland. If the digital Rectum test of Prostate is not normal, a Prostate Cancer may exist, Biopsy is then suggested along with the Ultrasound images of the area.

A small part of Prostate tissue is taken through a cutting needle and a Tru cut biopsy is done.

A Pathologist analyzes the sample of tissues with the help of a microscope to know about the type of Cancer present in the Prostate and the level of involvement of Prostate with this tumor.

Tests Used for the Diagnosis

Following tests are used for the diagnosis of this disease

  • Radionuclide Bone scans helps in determining the spread of Tumor to the Bones.
  • Chest X-ray is done to detect the presence of Cancer in the Lungs.
  • CT scan and MRI tests are used to check the spread to the other tissues and organs like Bladder, Rectum, Liver or Lungs etc.
  • Cytoscopy is done in some situations, it is done to analyze whether the Cancer has spread to the Urethra or Bladder.

Stages of Prostate Cancer

The staging of cancer indicates the level of this disease. Once Prostate Cancer is diagnosed further tests are done to check if the Cancer is spread to the other parts of body.

The doctors assign stages to Prostate Cancer based on the results of the Prostate Biopsy, imaging and tests etc.

The stages help to forecast the expected course of this disease and knowing the options for treatment.

Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer

Following are the treatment options for Prostate Cancer

  1. Radiation Therapy
  2. Cryotherapy
  3. Chemotherapy
  4. Surgery

Prevention for Prostate Cancer

No special measures are found to prevent this condition. We can prevent the development of the cancer by making early diagnosis and then trying to cure the disease as soon as possible.

  • Some researchers suggest some dietary measures to prevent the development including Low Fat diets, Red Meats etc.
  • Soybeans decrease the amount of Testosterone in the Blood and can control the growth of Prostate Cancers.
  • Tomatoes, Mineral Selenium and Vitamin E may slow the growth of this Cancer.
  • The use of medications like Finasteride and Dutasteride reduces the chences of getting this Cancer. These medications may also help in shrinking the size of Prostate and reducing the symptoms of this condition.

There was a time when this disease was incurable but now many effective treatment are available that may save the lives of people around the world.

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1 comment

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