Abortion is the removal of embryo before completion of child. The medical industry has developed a number of different methods of abortion chemical and surgical. The type of abortion method used in possible pregnancy termination is generally determined by how far a woman is pregnant.
During the first trimester, women have the two options of having a medical abortion procedure or a surgical abortion procedure. Medical terminations are only available up to 9 weeks gestation. Abortion procedures for first trimester includes
Methotrexate & Misoprostol (MTX):
A medical abortion procedure used up to the first 7 weeks of pregnancy. The patients should use the drugs according to doctor’s advice. It can have serious side effects due to its high toxicity. Side effects include nausea, diarrhea, liver damage and lung disease.
Mifepristone and Misoprostol:
A medical abortion procedure used up to the first 7 to 9 weeks of pregnancy. It is also referred to as RU-486, the abortion pill and Mifeprex. RU-486 used to induce abortion on women who are five to nine weeks along in their pregnancy. It actually requires three trips to the clinic and has side effects that can include severe bleeding, nausea, vomiting and pain
A surgical abortion procedure used to remove pregnancy between 6 to 12 weeks gestation. In a Suction Aspiration abortion, the abortionist numbs the cervix and stretches it open, then inserts a hollow plastic tube with a knife-like edge into the uterus and suctions the baby’s body into a bottle. The baby’s body is torn apart. Since the suction is much more powerful than a home vacuum cleaner, the placenta well-connected to the uterus’s lining is also torn away.
In second trimester medication based abortion procedures are not suggested.
Suitable abortion procedures for second trimester are;
Dilation & Curettage (D & C):
A surgical abortion procedure used to terminate a pregnancy between 13 to 15 weeks gestation. It is also known to as suction curettage or vacuum aspiration.
Dilation & Evacuation (D & E):
A surgical abortion procedure used to terminate a pregnancy between 15 to 21 weeks gestation. During a D&E, the woman’s cervix “must be dilated more widely because surgical instruments are used to remove larger pieces” of the embryo. After dilating the cervix, the doctor inserts narrow forceps and then methodically cuts the baby into pieces. In this procedure, the woman may receive intravenous fluid and an analgesic or tranquilizer. If the baby is beyond 14 weeks, oxytocin can be administered to get the uterus to contract and reduce in size.
Rarely performed surgical procedure in which salt water, urea, or potassium chloride is injected into the amniotic sac. Prostaglandins are inserted into the vagina and pitocin is injected intravenously.
During the third trimester medication based abortion procedures are not an option. The surgical types of abortion procedures performed during the third trimester.
These methods require abortionists to inject lethal chemicals. These techniques may result in the birth of a severely injured, but living, baby described by abortionists as “the dreaded complication.” One instillation technique, used after the 16th week, is saline amniocentesis, or a “salt-poisoning” abortion. An alternative to saline is the urea abortion, which works in a similar way. Another same method is intracardiac injections.
Dilation and Extraction:
A surgical abortion procedure used to terminate a pregnancy after 21 weeks of gestation. This procedure is also known as D & X, Intact D & X, Intrauterine Cranial Decompression and Partial Birth Abortion.
Abortion is very safe now a day. It is safer than delivering a baby and receiving a shot of penicillin. However like all medical procedures, some risks with abortion are also present, but the risks are relatively minimal.
Potential complications due to abortion procedure includes
• Incomplete abortion – which means the procedure required repetition.
• Infection – which is easily treated with antibiotics
• Perforation of the uterine wall – for which surgical repair is needed in a hospital, depending on the severity.
Less than one percent of all abortion patients experience a major complication, like serious pelvic infection, hemorrhage requiring a blood transfusion or unintended major surgery. The risks associated with abortion are directly proportional to the length of pregnancy. Hysterectomy is exceptionally rare. The risk of death, related to childbirth is about ten folds higher as that associated with abortion.
Unless one has a severe complication during or after the abortion, abortion has no impact on future ability to get pregnant.
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